Index of /holdings/nh-j-lorri-2-jupiter-v2.0

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[DIR] Parent Directory - [DIR] calib/ 29-Oct-2014 09:57 - [DIR] catalog/ 29-Oct-2014 10:01 - [DIR] data/ 11-Oct-2014 12:23 - [DIR] document/ 11-Nov-2014 16:20 - [DIR] DOWNLOAD/ 12-Nov-2014 15:13 - [DIR] index/ 11-Nov-2014 16:21 - [DIR] NOTES/ 08-Apr-2016 21:51 - [TXT] aareadme.txt 29-Oct-2014 09:57 68K [TXT] dataset.html 31-Jul-2017 21:06 3.5K [   ] voldesc.cat 29-Oct-2014 09:57 5.4K [PDS catalog file]
PDS_VERSION_ID                = PDS3                                          
RECORD_TYPE                   = STREAM                                        
LABEL_REVISION_NOTE           = "                                             
2014-08-23 SwRI:BTCarcich                                                     
  Updated from comments in PDS peer review on 2014-08-19.                     
"                                                                             
                                                                              
OBJECT                        = TEXT                                          
  PUBLICATION_DATE            = 2014-10-29                                    
  NOTE                        = "The NH LORRI Jupiter encounter               
                                 Raw VERSION 2.0                              
                                 Data Archive                                 
                                                                              
                                 Be sure to read the Required Reading         
                                 note below before using the data in          
                                 this archive.                                
                                                                              
                                "                                             
END_OBJECT                    = TEXT                                          
END                                                                           
                                                                              
The NH LORRI JUPITER Raw VERSION 2.0 Data Archive                             
========================================================================      
                                                                              
                                                                              
Table of Contents                                                             
=================                                                             
                                                                              
  Introduction                                                                
  Required Reading                                                            
  Processing Level                                                            
  Volume Format                                                               
  File Formats                                                                
  Volume Contents                                                             
  Data Filenames and Product IDs                                              
  Data directory naming convention                                            
  Suggested FITS & PDS software                                               
  PDS label overview                                                          
  Generic PDS label details                                                   
  Whom to Contact for Information                                             
                                                                              
                                                                              
Introduction                                                                  
============                                                                  
                                                                              
Science data content                                                          
--------------------                                                          
                                                                              
   This document provides an overview of this dataset of                      
   the New Horizons (NH)                                                      
                                                                              
     LORRI JUPITER Raw VERSION 2.0                                            
                                                                              
   Data Archive, including a general listing of the dataset contents.         
                                                                              
   This dataset contains flight data obtained during the                      
                                                                              
     Jupiter encounter                                                        
                                                                              
   mission phase of the New Horizons mission, taken by the                    
                                                                              
     Long Range Reconnaissance Imager                                         
                                                                              
   instrument of the New Horizons spacecraft.                                 
                                                                              
                                                                              
                                                                              
   Refer to the data sequence list file                                       
                                                                              
      DOCUMENT/SEQ_LORRI_JUPITER.*                                            
                                                                              
   for descriptions of the sequences that generated these data                
   (see also Note 2 below).                                                   
                                                                              
   Extensive preparation is necessary to properly understand and interpret    
   the data in this data set.  Although some detail is provided here, this    
   file is only intended as an introduction to and starting point for this    
   data set; refer to the Required Reading section below for further          
   guidance.                                                                  
                                                                              
                                                                              
Boilerplate disclaimer                                                        
----------------------                                                        
                                                                              
   All NH raw and calibrated data sets were generated in similar fashion by   
   an automated pipeline; as such, much of the information that follows is    
   boilerplate common to all such NH data sets.  Refer to the data set        
   catalog (CATALOG/DATASET.CAT) and documentation (DOCUMENT/), as well as    
   the Required Reading section below, for information specific to the        
   instrument and data of this data set.                                      
                                                                              
                                                                              
Note about start and stop times                                               
-------------------------------                                               
                                                                              
   The start and stop times of data products in some NH data sets may         
   overlap the ***NOMINAL*** start and stop times, i.e.                       
                                                                              
     2007-01-01T00:00:00 and 2007-06-27T00:00:00 UTC,                         
                                                                              
   respectively, of that mission phase (see also Note 1 below).               
                                                                              
   See the Mission catalog file NH.CAT in the /CATALOG/ directory for a       
   description of the New Horizons mission, including a description of        
   mission phases.                                                            
                                                                              
   Note 1:  Because single data products may span from milliseconds to days   
            of data, their start time may precede, or their stop times may    
            follow, the mission ***NOMINAL*** phase start or stop times,      
            respectively.  Refer to CATALOG/DATASET.CAT for the exact start   
            and stop times of data in this data set.                          
                                                                              
   Note 2:  Some planned sequences in that list were not executed, due to     
            operational considerations such as spacecraft safing events, so   
            some sequences will have no corresponding data.                   
                                                                              
                                                                              
Required Reading                                                              
================                                                              
                                                                              
  Almost all of the New Horizons instruments have complex modes of operation  
and complex, multi-part data products; users who want to properly understand  
these data should expect to spend a significant effort (at least a day per    
instrument) reading about and researching the instrument, the data and the PDS
product formats.  To support that, the data producer has provided the         
following Required Reading list.                                              
                                                                              
                                                                              
  Required Reading Summary List (see Details below for suggested priority)    
  ------------------------------------------------------------------------    
                                                                              
    In this file (sections and subsections below):                            
                                                                              
      Details (next subsection of Required Reading)                           
      Data Filenames and Product IDs                                          
      Data directory naming convention                                        
      Explanation of granularity                                              
      Suggested FITS & PDS software                                           
      PDS label overview                                                      
                                                                              
                                                                              
    Under the /DOCUMENT/ subdirectory:                                        
                                                                              
      SOC_INST_ICD.*   Science Operations Center Interface Control Document   
      LORRI_SSR.*      Space Science Review (SSR) Instrument paper            
      PAYLOAD_SSR.*    Space Science Review (SSR) Payload paper               
      DOCINFO.TXT      Summary of /DOCUMENT/ subdirectory                     
                                                                              
      NH_MISSION_TRAJECTORY.*  NH Trajectory table for mission                
      NH_TRAJECTORY.*          NH Trajectory table for Jupiter Encounter      
                                                                              
      SEQ_LORRI_JUPITER.*   Sequence list for this data set                   
                                                                              
                                                                              
    Under the /CATALOG/ subdirectory:                                         
                                                                              
      DATASET.CAT       NH Data Set Catalog objects                           
      NH.CAT            NH Mission Catalog objects                            
      NHSC.CAT          NH SpaceCraft catalog objects                         
      LORRI.CAT         NH Instrument catalog objects                         
      REF.CAT           References to other documents                         
      CATINFO.TXT       Summary of /CATALOG/ subdirectory                     
                                                                              
                                                                              
    Under the /CALIB/ subdirectory:                                           
                                                                              
      CALINFO.TXT   Summary of calibration files in /CALIB/ subdirectory      
                                                                              
                                                                              
  Details                                                                     
  -------                                                                     
                                                                              
   The information contained in all documents included with, and              
   referenced in, this archive, is an integral part of this archive.          
                                                                              
   Specifically, the information contained in the SOC Instrument              
   Interface Control Document (ICD), and in the documents submitted           
   for publication in Space Science Reviews in 2007, is crucial to            
   understanding the data in this archive.  As such, the producers            
   of this archive have included the best possible version of these           
   documents with this archive.                                               
                                                                              
   * SOC Instrument Interface Control Document (AKA the ICD)                  
                                                                              
     The ICD specifies the interfaces between the New Horizons                
     Science Operations Center (SOC) and the instrument pipeline, which       
     process data from raw to calibrated units.  The ICD's purpose is to      
     define the various aspects of the interfaces in sufficient detail        
     to establish a clear understanding between the SOC and the               
     instrument team to allow for a parallel pipeline development.            
                                                                              
     This file is located in the /DOCUMENT/ directory of this                 
     data set and its filename is SOC_INST_ICD.PDF.  Other versions           
     of this file in different formats may be listed in SOC_INST_ICD.LBL.     
                                                                              
     In addition to mission-wide information (approximately six pages), the   
     ICD contains an entire section devoted to the details of the             
     LORRI instrument (~22 pages).  The most important aids provided          
     to the user of this archive by the ICD are                               
                                                                              
       * Descriptions of the data files that comprise the                     
         data portion of this archive.                                        
                                                                              
       * Descriptions of the calibration methodology of the                   
         LORRI instrument data.                                               
                                                                              
       * Overview descriptions of the LORRI instrument theory                 
         and operations.                                                      
                                                                              
       * References to more detailed documentation.                           
                                                                              
   * LORRI Space Science Reviews documents (AKA SSR paper(s))                 
                                                                              
     Scientific papers describing the New Horizons mission,                   
     spacecraft, mission design, payload and instruments were submitted       
     to the publication Space Science Reviews in 2007 after the Jupiter       
     encounter; refer to the references catalog for full citations.           
                                                                              
     These files are located in the /DOCUMENT/ directory of this              
     data set.                                                                
                                                                              
     The filename of the instrument SSR paper is LORRI_SSR.PDF;               
     other versions of this file are listed in LORRI_SSR.LBL.                 
                                                                              
                                                                              
     The filename of the payload SSR paper is PAYLOAD_SSR.PDF;                
     other versions of this file are listed in PAYLOAD_SSR.LBL.               
                                                                              
     The LORRI instrument and payload overview SSR papers, I.E.               
                                                                              
       Cheng, A. F., et al., 2008 [CHENGETAL2008]                             
                                                                              
     and                                                                      
                                                                              
       Weaver, H.A., et al., 2008 [WEAVERETAL2008],                           
                                                                              
     provide details of the LORRI theory, design, ground testing              
     and calibration, operational considerations, and post-launch             
     checkout results.                                                        
                                                                              
     Because of time and copyright restrictions, the SSR papers could not     
     be included in this archive in their peer-reviewed and published form.   
     However, Space Science Reviews did agree to allowing the submitted       
     versions of these papers to be included in this archive.  This has       
     been done with the initial version of this archive as a convenience      
     to the user of this archive.  However, it should be noted that           
                                                                              
         There were changes made to the submitted papers before they          
         were published.  Where any differences exist between the             
         submitted versions of these documents in this archive and the        
         final published versions, the final published versions are           
         considered authoritative, and it is up to the user of this           
         archive to assess if any such differences will affect their          
         use of this archive.                                                 
                                                                              
   Other important documents are available in the following files:            
                                                                              
     NH Trajectory table through Jupiter Encounter:                           
                                                                              
       /DOCUMENT/NH_TRAJECTORY.*                                              
                                                                              
       - Includes Jupiter-centric ephemeris in Jupiter frame                  
                                                                              
     NH Heliocentric Trajectory table for mission                             
                                                                              
       /DOCUMENT/NH_MISSION_TRAJECTORY.*                                      
                                                                              
     LORRI Field Of View definitions:                                         
                                                                              
       /DOCUMENT/NH_FOV.*                                                     
       /DOCUMENT/NH_LORRI_V###_TI.TXT                                         
                                                                              
   Further pointers to important documents for this data set                  
   are available in the following files:                                      
                                                                              
     /CATALOG/CATINFO.TXT                                                     
     /CATALOG/REF.CAT                                                         
     /CALIB/CALINFO.TXT                                                       
     /DOCUMENT/DOCINFO.TXT                                                    
                                                                              
   All reasonable efforts have been made to include the documents in          
   multiple formats in the document portion of this archive.  Where such      
   inclusion was not possible due to copyright restrictions, references       
   to the documents have been included in this archive, and it is             
   up to the user of this archive to obtain a copy of such documents.         
   The original format of the ICD was MSWORD, and the original format         
   of the SSR papers was PDF, as noted above.  All other formats may          
   show some loss in quality, especially in images, so the user is            
   encouraged to get the best possible version of these documents.            
                                                                              
                                                                              
Processing Level                                                              
================                                                              
                                                                              
   This data set contains Raw data, one of the two                            
   levels of processed data provided by the NH project to PDS.                
   A brief discussion of processing levels follows:                           
                                                                              
     Processing  Description                                                  
     Level       => CODMAC Level                                              
     ==========  ===============                                              
                                                                              
     Raw         Instrument telemetry formatted for scientific use            
                 => CODMAC Level 2                                            
                                                                              
     Calibrated  Raw data converted to scientific units                       
                 => CODMAC Level 3                                            
                                                                              
   N.B.:  Raw and Calibrated data are sometimes referred to as EDR            
          (Engineering Data Records) and RDR (Reduced Data Records),          
          respectively.                                                       
                                                                              
   Raw data are in instrument units, typically binary integers referred to    
   as COUNTs or DATA NUMBER (DN).  The raw data are stored in data files      
   with ancillary information such as observation time timestamps and         
   observational geometry.                                                    
                                                                              
   Calibrated data are in scientific or engineering units, such as            
   radiance (W/(m**2 um sr)) or impact particle mass (GRAMs).  The            
   conversion to calibrated data from raw data was performed according        
   to an instrument performance model, which was developed from               
   scientific analysis of ground- and inflight-calibrations, and which        
   is documented in files in this data set under the DOCUMENT/ and            
   CALIB/ subdirectories.  Refer to to DOCUMENT/DOCINFO.TXT and               
   CALIB/CALINFO.TXT for pointers to more information.                        
                                                                              
   N.B.:  Not all data sets will have CALIB/ directories.                     
                                                                              
                                                                              
Volume Format                                                                 
=============                                                                 
                                                                              
   This volume has been formatted according to the PDS Standards              
   Reference 3.8 version current as of this data set's publication date.      
                                                                              
                                                                              
File Formats                                                                  
============                                                                  
                                                                              
   All text documents and other meta information files such as                
   descriptions, PDS object definitions and detached PDS labels are           
   stream format files, with a carriage return (ASCII 13) and a line          
   feed character (ASCII 10) at the end of the record.  This allows           
   the files to be read by most current operating systems.                    
                                                                              
   Data are provided in FITS format with detached PDS labels; the FITS        
   files are the same as those generated by the NH Project data               
   processing pipeline and used by the by NH instrument teams.  Users         
   comfortable with FITS format are welcome to use FITS libraries or other    
   tools to parse and read the data directly from the FITS files; all         
   others are advised to access the data through the lens of the detached     
   PDS labels.                                                                
                                                                              
   See the                                                                    
                                                                              
     Suggested FITS & PDS software                                            
     PDS label overview                                                       
                                                                              
   sections below for approaches to reading the data.                         
                                                                              
   If the user does not have the skills and/or resources to read these        
   data, they should contact the Planetary Data System (PDS) for support,     
   or hire a competent programmer to further prepare the data for their       
   use and analysis.                                                          
                                                                              
                                                                              
Volume Contents                                                               
===============                                                               
                                                                              
   Files on this volume are organized into a set of subdirectories            
   below the top-level directory. The following table shows the general       
   structure and content of these directories, but does not exhaustively      
   list every file in each directory.  See the *INFO.TXT files in each        
   top-level sub-directory for specific information about the files           
   under that directory.                                                      
                                                                              
   In this table, directory names are surrounded by forward slashes (/),      
   and the top-level of the volume is indicated by a single forward slash.    
                                                                              
   Lines preceded with double-asterisks are not present in all data sets.     
                                                                              
   /                     Top level of volume.                                 
   |                                                                          
   +-- AAREADME.TXT      The AAREADME file; a backup is in /DOCUMENT/         
 **+-- ERRATA.TXT        Description of any known errors or anomalies         
   +-- VOLDESC.CAT       Description of the logical contents of this volume.  
   |                                                                          
   +--/DOCUMENT/           Directory containing dataset-related documents.    
   |  +-- AAREADME_BU.TXT    A backup of the top-level /AAREADME.TXT file     
   |  +-- DOCINFO.TXT        Description of files in the DOCUMENT directory.  
   |  +-- *.*                Documentation files                              
   |  +--/SAMPLES/           Sub-directory containing data samples            
   |     +-- SAMPINFO.TXT      Description of files in the SAMPLES dir.       
   |     +-- *.*               Data sample files and documentation            
   |                                                                          
   |--/CATALOG/            Directory containing PDS catalog objects.          
   |  +-- CATINFO.TXT        Description of files in the CATALOG directory.   
   |  +-- *.*                Catalog files                                    
   |                                                                          
   +--/DATA/               Top-level data directory                           
   |  +--/YYYYMMDD_SCRMET/   Sub-directories of /DATA/ containing data files  
   |     +-- *.*               Data files                                     
   |                                                                          
 **+--/CALIB/              Top-level directory containing calibration files   
 **|  +-- CALINFO.TXT        Description of files in the CALIB directory      
 **|  +-- *.*                Calibration files                                
   |                                                                          
   +--/INDEX/              Directory containing index files.                  
      |                                                                       
      +-- INDXINFO.TXT       Description of files in the INDEX directory      
      +-- *.*                Index files and labels                           
                                                                              
                                                                              
Errata                                                                        
======                                                                        
                                                                              
  The data in this data set are ideally certified with no known errors.       
  Over time, errors may be brought to the attention of the NH Project and to  
  PDS; such errors will be documented in file ERRATA.TXT in the top-level     
  directory of this data set.                                                 
                                                                              
  Apparent anomalies and other oddities in the data, which are not in error,  
  will be documented in the CONFIDENCE_LEVEL_NOTE of the data set catalog     
  (CATALOG/DATASET.CAT).                                                      
                                                                              
                                                                              
Data Filenames and Product IDs                                                
==============================                                                
                                                                              
The filenames of data files and the Product IDs of observations adhere        
to a common convention e.g.                                                   
                                                                              
         ALI_0123456789_0X0AB_ENG_1.FIT                                       
         ^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^\__/                                       
         |        |       |    |  | ^^                                        
         |        |       |    |  |  |                                        
         |        |       |    |  |  +--File type (includes dot)              
         |        |       |    |  |     - .FIT for FITS file                  
         |        |       |    |  |     - .LBL for PDS label                  
         |        |       |    |  |     - not part of Product ID              
         |        |       |    |  |                                           
         |        |       |    |  +-- Version number; SOC-internal            
         |        |       |    |      (Science Operations Center)             
         |        |       |    |      (see Note FN1)                          
         |        |       |    |                                              
         |        |       |    +--ENG for Raw data                            
         |        |       |       SCI for Calibrated data                     
         |        |       |      (see Note FN1)                               
         |        |       |                                                   
         |        |       +--Application ID (ApID) of the telemetry data      
         |        |          packet from which the data come (see Note FN2)   
         |        |                                                           
         |        +--Spacecraft Receipt Mission Elapsed Time (SCRMET)         
         |                                                                    
         +--Instrument/observation designator                                 
                                                                              
Note FN1:  Version numbers are SOC-internal values; when looking for a        
           calibrated version of a raw data file, the Instrument, SCRMET      
           and ApID portion of the filenames will be the same between         
           the raw and calibrated versions of the same observation, but       
           the version numbers may differ.                                    
                                                                              
Note FN2:  ApIDs may define the type of data taken by the instrument (e.g.    
           mode) and the path taken by the data from the instrument to the    
           ground (e.g. compression).  Refer to the data set catalog,         
           CATALOG/DATASET.CAT, and the SOC Instrument ICD for definitions    
           of the ApIDs that may be present in this data set.                 
                                                                              
Note that, depending on the observation, the SCRMET in the data               
filename and in the Product ID may be similar to the Mission Elapsed Time     
(MET) of the actual observation acquisition, but should not be used as an     
analog for the acquisition time.  The SCRMET is the time that the data        
are transferred from the instrument to spacecraft memory and is therefore     
not a reliable indicator of the actual observation time.  The PDS label       
and the index tables are better sources to use for the actual timing of       
any observation.  The specific keywords and index table column names for      
which to look are                                                             
                                                                              
  * START_TIME                                                                
  * STOP_TIME                                                                 
  * SPACECRAFT_CLOCK_START_COUNT                                              
  * SPACECRAFT_CLOCK_STOP_COUNT                                               
                                                                              
                                                                              
Data directory naming convention                                              
================================                                              
                                                                              
All of the data files in this dataset are under, but not in, the top-level    
/DATA/ directory.  Sub-directories, based on the SCRMET (see above) of the    
top-level /DATA/ directory have been provided to increase the granularity of  
data storage locations which in turn keeps there from being too many data     
files in any one directory.  The granularity implemented is one sub-directory 
per 10,000 counts of the SCRMET (see Data Filenames and Product IDs section   
above).                                                                       
                                                                              
The subdirectory names on this volume reflect that granularity.  These        
names are of the form                                                         
                                                                              
  YYYYMMDD_SCRMET/                                                            
                                                                              
where SCRMET is a grouping of the first six digits of the ten-digit SCRMET    
count, and YYYY, MM, and DD are the year, month and day of the first          
possible SCRMET corresponding to that six-digit SCRMET prefix.  Any data file 
will be located in a directory whose six-digit SCRMET prefix matches that     
of the data file.                                                             
                                                                              
Since each count represents about one second, there may be as many as nine    
six-digit SCRMET prefixes with the same YYYYMMDD values.  Also, since days    
will not start or end exactly on 10,000 count SCRMET boundaries, directories  
with the naming convention may span day boundaries.  That is, the YYYYMMDD    
value corresponding to the start of a 10,000 count SCRMET range may not be    
the same as the YYYYMMDD that corresponds to the end of that range.           
                                                                              
                                                                              
Explanation of granularity                                                    
--------------------------                                                    
                                                                              
The granularity of sub-directories under /DATA/ on this volume has been       
copied from that used on the Science Operations Center (SOC) where the        
data files were originally generated.  On the SOC, the same granularity       
was implemented across all eight New Horizons instruments' directory          
structures.  Because the mission instruments generate data files at           
varying rates, from one or more data files per second to one or more days     
per data file, a compromise granularity of 10,000 SCRMET counts was chosen,   
and propagated to this volume.                                                
                                                                              
                                                                              
Suggested FITS & PDS software                                                 
=============================                                                 
                                                                              
        For working with PDS-labeled data, software packages are available    
at Planetary Data System (PDS) nodes (as of 2007).  Several other options     
for reading either FITS or PDS-labeled data are listed here.  If not          
included in the text below, references to the packages may be either found    
at one or more PDS nodes or found via a search engine.  Data users            
planning to write custom software should refer to the PDS label               
description in the subtopics that follow for a general introduction and       
to the PDS Standards document available at PDS nodes.                         
                                                                              
        The following URLs were current as of 2007 when the early New         
Horizons data sets were delivered; given the availability of search engines   
for the World Wide Web, no attempt has been or will be made to update this    
information throughout the mission.                                           
                                                                              
Readers and viewers (Package name, format handled by it, and URL):            
                                                                              
 READPDS  PDS   http://pdssbn.astro.umd.edu/nodehtml/software.shtml           
 NASAVIEW PDS   http://pds.nasa.gov/tools/software_download.cfm               
 FV       FITS  http://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/software/ftools/fv/         
 DS9      FITS  http://hea-www.harvard.edu/RD/ds9/                            
                                                                              
                                                                              
Development toolkits for IDL (http://www.ittvis.com/idl/):                    
                                                                              
 OAL      PDS   http://pds-rings.seti.org/toolkits/                           
 ASTRO    FITS  http://idlastro.gsfc.nasa.gov/                                
                                                                              
                                                                              
Development toolkits for C & FORTRAN:                                         
                                                                              
 OAL      PDS   http://pds-rings.seti.org/toolkits/                           
 CFITSIO  FITS  http://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/software/fitsio/            
                                                                              
                                                                              
Development toolkit for Python and Perl:                                      
                                                                              
 PyFITS      FITS  http://www.stsci.edu/resources/software_hardware/pyfits/   
 CFITSIO.pm  FITS  http://hea-www.harvard.edu/~rpete/cfitsio/                 
                                                                              
                                                                              
General FITS info and many more references may be found at                    
                                                                              
  The FITS Support Office:  http://fits.gsfc.nasa.gov/                        
                                                                              
                                                                              
N.B.  The following description of PDS labels is only meant to be             
      sufficient to write a program to read the FITS data files in this       
      data set using the information contained in the corresponding           
      detached PDS labels in this data set, and is therefore neither a        
      complete nor PDS-sanctioned exposition of the PDS label format or       
      PDS standards.  For full details of the PDS standards, refer to         
      the source from which this data set was obtained.                       
                                                                              
                                                                              
PDS label overview                                                            
==================                                                            
                                                                              
  Under the DATA/ subdirectory of this data set, each PDS label file is a     
multi-record flat ASCII file describing the Data Units in a corresponding FITS
data file that represent a single observation or group of observations.       
                                                                              
  A FITS file is made up of one or more contiguous 2880-byte records.  Each   
Data Unit (DU) in a FITS data file comprises one or more records.  The data in
each DU starts at the first byte of the DU and is arranged as described in the
PDS label.  If the data in a DU do not end at a 2880-byte boundary, then that 
DU is padded out to the boundary.                                             
                                                                              
  Each record in a PDS label is 80 bytes long comprising 78 printable 7-bit   
ASCII characters and/or spaces and ending with a carriage return and a line   
feed.  Most records are of the form                                           
                                                                              
    KEYWORD = VALUE                                                           
                                                                              
  where KEYWORD is the name of a quantity, and VALUE represents the value of  
that quantity.  Spaces before, after, and between the keyword, the equals     
sign, and the value(s) are not significant.                                   
                                                                              
  String values may span multiple records, and are usually delimited by (i.e. 
enclosed in) double quotes.  Strings contain no double quotes.  Some string   
values, such as UTC times, are not enclosed in quotes.                        
                                                                              
  Most integer & floating point numeric values are displayed without quotes.  
                                                                              
  Multiple values for a single keyword are indicated by enclosing the values  
in parentheses or curly braces and separating the values with commas.         
                                                                              
  Comments are initiated by a contiguous forward-slash & asterisk pair (i.e.  
/*) on the left and continue to the end of a single record where they are     
usually terminated by a matching asterisk & forward-slash pair (*/).  Whether 
or not the terminating pair is present, the comment ends at the end of the    
record, and another initiating pair must be present on the next record if that
record is intended to continue the comment.                                   
                                                                              
  Blank lines may be inserted between other lines to enhance readability.     
                                                                              
  1) PDS pointers                                                             
                                                                              
     Pointers are special cases of keyword/value pairs in the PDS label, and  
define where each DU starts in the FITS file; pointers look like this:        
                                                                              
^HEADER               =  "XYZ.FIT"        /* Primary Header DU (HDU) */       
^IMAGE                = ("XYZ.FIT",11)    /* Primary DU              */       
^ERROR_HEADER         = ("XYZ.FIT",22)    /* Extension #1 HDU        */       
^ERROR_IMAGE          = ("XYZ.FIT",31)    /* Extension #1 DU         */       
^HOUSEKEEPING_HEADER  = ("XYZ.FIT",43)    /* Extension #2 HDU        */       
^HOUSEKEEPING_TABLE   = ("XYZ.FIT",44)    /* Extension #2 DU         */       
^THRUSTERS_HEADER     = ("XYZ.FIT",45)    /* Extension #3 HDU        */       
^THRUSTERS_TABLE      = ("XYZ.FIT",51)    /* Extension #3 DU         */       
                                                                              
                                                                              
     Pointer keywords HEADER and IMAGE refer to the Primary Header Data Unit  
(HDU) and Primary Data Unit, respectively.  Pointer keywords that end in      
_HEADER refer to Extension HDUs.  Pointer keywords that end in _IMAGE or      
_TABLE or _ARRAY refer to Extension DUs.                                      
                                                                              
     The text after the equals sign in each pointer is usually enclosed by    
parentheses and comprises the filename of the file where the DU resides and   
the DU's location in that file.  The filename and the location are delimited  
by a comma.  The filename is a string enclosed in double quotes, and the DU   
location is a decimal integer value indicating the cardinal location in the   
file of the first 2880-byte record of the DU.                                 
                                                                              
     For example, the ^IMAGE DU above, with a location value of 11, starts at 
an offset of 28800 bytes (= [11-1]*2880) from the first byte of the           
file.                                                                         
                                                                              
     If only the filename is given, with neither the parentheses nor the comma
nor the location, then the DU starts at the beginning of the file i.e.  the   
location is implicitly set to one.                                            
                                                                              
                                                                              
  2) OBJECT stanzas                                                           
                                                                              
     Each pointer in a PDS label will have a corresponding OBJECT stanza.     
OBJECT stanzas comprise the lines between corresponding 'OBJECT=<object_name>'
& 'END_OBJECT=<object_name>' keyword lines.                                   
                                                                              
     OBJECT stanzas referring to TABLEs will contain one or more              
'OBJECT=COLUMN'/'END_OBJECT=COLUMN' stanzas.                                  
                                                                              
     See the comments (/* ... */) to the right of the keywords in the example 
below to understand the OBJECTs and keywords that describe binary tables.     
                                                                              
************************************************************************      
********** N.B.  This example does not describe every keyword **********      
**********       that will be present in each table, but only **********      
**********       those necessary to read and understand the   **********      
**********       arrangement of the data in the DU to which   **********      
**********       OBJECTs refer.  Refer to the PDS standards   **********      
**********       for more details.                            **********      
********** Example starts after the next line                 **********      
************************************************************************      
                                                                              
^S_TABLE      = ("XYZ.FIT",51)    /* EDU #3;  Data table    */                
                                                                              
OBJECT = S_TABLE  /* Start of object describing data of pointer ^S_TABLE */   
                                                                              
  INTERCHANGE_FORMAT = BINARY                                                 
  ROWS = 463                /* Table comprises 463 rows */                    
  COLUMNS = 97              /* Table comprises 97 columns */                  
  ROW_BYTES = 1080          /* Each row comprises 1080 bytes */               
  DESCRIPTION = "..."                                                         
                                                                              
  OBJECT = COLUMN           /* OBJECT describing column 1 */                  
    NAME = STATUSES         /* Column name */                                 
    COLUMN_NUMBER = 1       /* Column location within row */                  
    DATA TYPE = MSB_INTEGER /* Column data element type */                    
    ITEMS = 3               /* Number of data elements in column */           
    ITEM_BYTES = 2          /* Size of each data element in column */         
    START_BYTE = 1          /* Byte location in row of 1st byte of column */  
    BYTES = 6               /* Column width (bytes); <= ITEMS*ITEM_BYTES */   
    DESCRIPTION = "..."                                                       
  END_OBJECT = COLUMN                                                         
                                                                              
  OBJECT = COLUMN           /* OBJECT describing column 2 */                  
    NAME = TEMPERATURE      /* Column name */                                 
    COLUMN_NUMBER = 2       /* Column location within row */                  
    DATA TYPE = IEEE_REAL   /* Column data type */                            
    ITEMS = 1               /* Number of data elements in column */           
    ITEM_BYTES = 4          /* Size of each data element in column */         
    START_BYTE = 7          /* Byte location in row of 1st byte of column */  
    BYTES = 4               /* Column width (bytes); <= ITEMS * ITEM_BYTES */ 
    DESCRIPTION = "..."                                                       
  END_OBJECT = COLUMN                                                         
                                                                              
  ...                                                                         
                                                                              
END_OBJECT = S_TABLE  /* End of object S_TABLE */                             
                                                                              
************************************************************************      
********** Example ends before the previous line       *****************      
************************************************************************      
                                                                              
                                                                              
     In the example above:                                                    
                                                                              
     - the table S_TABLE starts at byte 144001 ((51-1)*2880 + 1)              
       of the file, and comprises 97 rows each of width 1080 bytes.           
                                                                              
     - the first column, named STATUSES, in each row starts at the            
       1st byte of that row and comprises three MSB-first 16-bit              
       integers using 6 bytes total on each row.                              
                                                                              
     - the second column, named TEMPERATURE, in each row starts at            
       the seventh byte of that row and comprises one IEEE 32-bit             
       floating point value using four bytes total on each row.               
                                                                              
     - Subsequent rows are offset 1080 bytes from the previous row.           
                                                                              
                                                                              
Generic PDS label details                                                     
=========================                                                     
                                                                              
  The PDS label has meta-data which describe the circumstances surrounding the
data in the FITS file.  These meta-data are in keyword and value pairs (e.g.  
the pointers above) and each of these keywords is described in the PDS Data   
Dictionary plus the New Horizons mission- specific local data dictionary      
supplemental items, both of which are available in this archive.              
                                                                              
  All FITS Header Data Units (HDUs) and Data Units are described in the PDS   
labels.  In some cases, no Data Unit will be described in the PDS label       
because there is nothing to describe i.e. it is not present in the FITS file. 
                                                                              
                                                                              
    PDS LABELS:  Column Descriptions in binary tables                         
    -------------------------------------------------                         
                                                                              
    FITS extensions may contain data that are a subset of                     
    instrument and/or spacecraft housekeeping telemetry packets               
    formatted as binary tables.  Where possible, each column                  
    included in such extensions has a DESCRIPTION field something             
    like this:                                                                
                                                                              
      DESCRIPTION   = "                                                       
           Full Mnemonic:                                                     
             SWAP_RT.SEC64_ST                                                 
                                                                              
           General Description:                                               
             A bit indicating the beginning of a 64-second cycle              
                                                                              
                                                                              
           Conversion:  STATES                                                
           - [lo:hi]=state description:                                       
             [0:0]=CONT                                                       
             [1:1]=START                                                      
                                                                              
           Subsystem:  SWAP                                                   
           Packet ApID:  0X584                                                
           Byte Offset within ApID packet:  10                                
           Bit Offset within Byte of ApID packet:  0                          
           Bit Length within ApID packet:  1                                  
           Type of value:  UNSIGNED                                           
           Units:  N/A                                                        
                                                                              
      "                                                                       
                                                                              
     The sub-fields used in these DESCRIPTION fields are as follows:          
                                                                              
                                                                              
     Full Mnemonic:  The complete mnemonic used in the definition             
                     of the packet.  The COLUMN name will typically           
                     be a subset of this mnemonic.                            
                                                                              
     General Description:  A description of the column                        
                                                                              
     Extended Description:  More information                                  
                            - this field is not always present                
                                                                              
     Conversion:  This item describes the conversion of the value             
                  found in the column to a meaningful quantity.               
                  It takes one of two forms:  STATES and polynomial.          
                                                                              
                  If the conversion form is STATES, then the bits of          
                  the column are combined into an integer and compared        
                  against the ranges list.  In the example above, if the      
                  value of the bit is zero, then the SWAP_RT.SEC64T           
                  column represents a continuing state.  If the value of      
                  the bit is 1, then the SWAP_RT_SEC64T column indicates      
                  that a new 64-second cycle has just begun.                  
                                                                              
                  If the conversion form is polynomial, then the bits of      
                  the column are combined into an integer and used as         
                  the independent value of the polynomial with the            
                  coefficients given.  For example, if the integer            
                  value of a column is 100,  and its conversion looks         
                  like this:                                                  
                                                                              
                    Conversion:  polynomial coefficients:                     
                      Order 0:  0.925                                         
                      Order 1:  0.979                                         
                                                                              
                   Then the derived value of this instrument is               
                                                                              
                      0.925 + (0.979 * 100) = 98.825                          
                                                                              
                                                                              
     Subsystem:  Which subsystem generated the packet                         
                                                                              
     Packet ApID:  The Application ID of the packet                           
                                                                              
     Byte & Bit Offsets & Bit Length:  the location of the column's           
                                       value in the packet, including         
                                       the 10-byte CCDS header.               
                                                                              
     Type of value:  For integer values, whether the value                    
                     is signed or unsigned                                    
                                                                              
     Units:  Nominal units of the derived column values                       
                                                                              
                                                                              
Whom to Contact for Information                                               
===============================                                               
                                                                              
   New Horizons LORRI Principal Investigator:                                 
                                                                              
     Andrew Cheng, Johns Hopkins Univ., Applied Physics Lab                   
                                                                              
      Andrew Cheng                                                            
                                                                              
      Johns Hopkins University                                                
      Applied Physics Laboratory                                              
      Space Department                                                        
      11100 Johns Hopkins Road                                                
      Laurel, MD   20723                                                      
      USA                                                                     
                                                                              
   New Horizons Science Operation Center (SOC):                               
                                                                              
      Joe Peterson                                                            
                                                                              
      Southwest Research Institute (SWRI)                                     
      Department of Space Studies                                             
      1050 Walnut Street, Suite 400                                           
      Boulder, CO   80302                                                     
      USA